Chronic total occlusion (CTO) is a complete or nearly complete blockage of one or more coronary arteries. The blockage, typically present for at least three months, is caused by a buildup of plaque within a coronary artery. When this happens, blood flow to the heart is compromised.
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Treatments for peripheral artery disease or PAD (sometimes called peripheral vascular disease) include both surgical and non-surgical options. All PAD patients are treated using risk factor management and exercise. Surgery is reserved for patients with the most serious symptoms.
The difference between peripheral artery disease or PAD (sometimes called peripheral vascular disease) and heart disease is that the blockages are outside your heart, usually in the legs. The University of Michigan’s Peripheral Arterial Disease Program brings together a multidisciplinary team of physicians to create a treatment plan tailored to your needs.
Pulmonary emboli can present as acute PE or chronic PE. Acute PE is a new obstruction causing acute onset heart strain and often needs immediate treatment with clot busters and blood thinning medications. Chronic PE is a more insidious presentation that includes heart failure with gradual progressive symptoms and is caused by an older residual obstruction resulting from an undissolved clot in the pulmonary circulation left over from previous acute pulmonary emboli. In addition, in a small percentage of patients, chronic PE can lead to elevated blood pressure in the pulmonary arteries over time, developing into a rare type of pulmonary hypertension called chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH).