Hereditary Hemorrhagic Telangiectasia (HHT) is a genetic disorder that affects about one in 5,000 people and commonly causes nosebleeds, with more frequent nosebleeds typically starting after about age 12. Patients with HHT have a tendency to form blood vessels that are abnormal, fragile, and bleed more easily.
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There are many different specialists who treat patients with HHT. Many patients will eventually see two or more types of specialists, especially later in adulthood. Specialists who treat HHT include otolaryngologists (ear, nose & throat doctors), interventional radiologists (to treat AVMs), hematologists (to help manage anemia), and more.
Pulmonary emboli can present as acute PE or chronic PE. Acute PE is a new obstruction causing acute onset heart strain and often needs immediate treatment with clot busters and blood thinning medications. Chronic PE is a more insidious presentation that includes heart failure with gradual progressive symptoms and is caused by an older residual obstruction resulting from an undissolved clot in the pulmonary circulation left over from previous acute pulmonary emboli. In addition, in a small percentage of patients, chronic PE can lead to elevated blood pressure in the pulmonary arteries over time, developing into a rare type of pulmonary hypertension called chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH).