Thymus Extracts

NOTICE: This health information was not created by the University of Michigan Health System (UMHS) and may not necessarily reflect specific UMHS practices. For medical advice relating to your personal condition, please consult your doctor. Complete disclaimer

Thymus Extracts

Uses

Thymus extracts are extracts derived from the thymus glands usually of young calves (bovine). The thymus is one of our major immune system glands. It is composed of two soft pinkish-gray lobes lying in bib-like fashion just below the thyroid gland and above the heart. To a large extent, the health of the thymus determines the health of the immune system. The thymus is responsible for many immune system functions, including the production of T lymphocytes, a type of white blood cell responsible for "cell-mediated immunity." Cell-mediated immunity refers to immune mechanisms not controlled or mediated by antibodies. Cell-mediated immunity is extremely important in the resistance to infection by certain bacteria, yeast (including Candida albicans), fungi, parasites, and viruses (including herpes simplex, Epstein-Barr, and the viruses that cause hepatitis). Cell-mediated immunity is also critical in protecting against the development of cancer, allergies, and autoimmune disorders such as rheumatoid arthritis. The thymus gland also releases several hormones, such as thymosin, thymopoeitin, and serum thymic factor, that regulate many immune functions.

What Are Star Ratings?

Our proprietary “Star-Rating” system was developed to help you easily understand the amount of scientific support behind each supplement in relation to a specific health condition. While there is no way to predict whether a vitamin, mineral, or herb will successfully treat or prevent associated health conditions, our unique ratings tell you how well these supplements are understood by the medical community, and whether studies have found them to be effective for other people.

For over a decade, our team has combed through thousands of research articles published in reputable journals. To help you make educated decisions, and to better understand controversial or confusing supplements, our medical experts have digested the science into these three easy-to-follow ratings. We hope this provides you with a helpful resource to make informed decisions towards your health and well-being.

3 Stars Reliable and relatively consistent scientific data showing a substantial health benefit.

2 Stars Contradictory, insufficient, or preliminary studies suggesting a health benefit or minimal health benefit.

1 Star For an herb, supported by traditional use but minimal or no scientific evidence. For a supplement, little scientific support.

This supplement has been used in connection with the following health conditions:

Used for Why
3 Stars
Bronchitis
3 mg per 2.2 lbs (1 kg) body weight daily
Thymus extract from calves, known as Thymomodulin, has been found to decrease the frequency of respiratory infections in children who were prone to such infections.

The thymus gland plays a number of important roles in the functioning of the immune system. Thymus extract from calves, known as Thymomodulin®, has been found, in a double-blind study, to decrease the frequency of respiratory infections in children who were prone to such infections.1 The amount of Thymomodulin used in that study was 3 mg per kg of body weight per day.

2 Stars
Allergies and Sensitivities
120 mg per day of thymomodulin
Thymomodulin, a special preparation of the thymus gland of calves, has been shown to prevent allergic reactions to food in a double-blind study of allergic children.
Thymomodulin is a special preparation of the thymus gland of calves. In a double-blind study of allergic children who had successfully completed an elimination diet, 120 mg per day of thymomodulin prevented allergic skin reactions to food and lowered blood levels of antibodies associated with those foods.2 These results confirmed similar findings in an earlier, controlled trial.3
2 Stars
Hay Fever
120 mg daily purified thymus polypeptides
A thymus extract known as Thymomodulin has been shown in studies to improve the symptoms of hay fever and allergic rhinitis.

The oral administration of a thymus extract known as Thymomodulin has been shown in preliminary studies and double-blind trials to improve the symptoms of hay fever and allergic rhinitis.4 , 5 , 6 Presumably this clinical improvement is the result of restoration of proper control over immune function.

2 Stars
Hepatitis
200 mg of crude extracts or 40 mg purified proteins three times per day
Proteins from the thymus gland, an important part of the immune system, may have a beneficial effect in people with chronic hepatitis B and C.

Proteins from the thymus gland, an important part of the immune system, may have a beneficial effect in people with chronic hepatitis B. Initial trials done in Poland used injected thymus proteins with good results.7 Further trials using a variety of thymus extracts by mouth have found that they can improve blood tests that measure liver damage as well as improve immune cell numbers.8 , 9 Preliminary evidence also suggests these extracts may help patients with hepatitis C.10 The standard recommendation for supplementation is 200 mg three times per day of crude extracts or 40 mg three times per day of purified proteins.

2 Stars
Immune Function
1 to 1.5 mg thymus polypeptides per 2.2 lbs body weight
The thymus gland is responsible for many immune system functions. A thymus extract known as Thymomodulin has been shown to improve immune function in some people.
The thymus gland is responsible for many immune system functions. Preliminary studies suggest that a thymus extract known as Thymomodulin® may improve immune function, and double-blind trials in children and adults with a history of recurrent respiratory-tract infections have found reduced numbers of recurrent infections with Thymomodulin supplementation.11 , 12 , 13 , 14 , 15 Thymomodulin has also been shown in a double-blind study to improve immune function in cases of exercise-induced immune suppression, and in preliminary studies to improve immune function in people with diabetes and in elderly people.16 , 17 , 18 , 19
1 Star
Asthma
Refer to label instructions
A thymus extract known as thymomodulin has been shown to improve the symptoms and course of asthma, presumably as the result of restoration of proper immune function control.

The oral administration of a thymus extract known as thymomodulin has been shown in preliminary and double-blind clinical trials to improve the symptoms and course of asthma.20 , 21 , 22 , 23 Presumably this clinical improvement is the result of restoration of proper control over immune function.

1 Star
HIV and AIDS Support
Refer to label instructions
In one trial, a thymus extract known as Thymomodulin improved several immune parameters among people with early HIV infection, including an increase in T-helper cells.

In a preliminary trial, a thymus extract known as Thymomodulin improved several immune parameters among people with early HIV infection, including an increase in the number of T-helper cells.24

How It Works

How to Use It

A number of different thymus preparations are commercially available. However, whether any of them have the same effects as Thymomodulin, which is not available in the United States, is still unknown. The recommended amount of thymus extract varies according to the type of preparation.

Where to Find It

Thymus extracts (from bovine sources) are found in capsules and tablets as a dietary supplement. Thymomodulin is not available in the United States, and it is unknown whether any of the thymus extracts that are available have the same effects as Thymomodulin.

Possible Deficiencies

Since it is not an essential nutrient, no deficiency state exists.

Interactions

Interactions with Supplements, Foods, & Other Compounds

At the time of writing, there were no well-known supplement or food interactions with this supplement.

Interactions with Medicines

Certain medicines interact with this supplement.

Types of interactions: Beneficial Adverse Check

Replenish Depleted Nutrients

  • none

Reduce Side Effects

  • Cisplatin

    Peptides or short proteins derived from the thymus gland, an important immune organ, have been used in conjunction with chemotherapy drugs for people with cancer. One study using thymosin fraction V in combination with chemotherapy, compared with chemotherapy alone, found significantly longer survival times in the thymosin fraction V group.40 A related substance, thymostimulin, decreased some side effects of chemotherapy and increased survival time compared with chemotherapy alone.41 A third product, thymic extract TP1, was shown to improve immune function in people treated with chemotherapy compared with effects of chemotherapy alone.42 Thymic peptides need to be administered by injection. People interested in their combined use with chemotherapy should consult a doctor.

    The interaction is supported by preliminary, weak, fragmentary, and/or contradictory scientific evidence.
  • Cyclophosphamide

    Peptides or short proteins derived from the thymus gland, an important immune organ, have been used in conjunction with chemotherapy drugs for people with cancer. One study using thymosin fraction V in combination with chemotherapy, compared with chemotherapy alone, found significantly longer survival times in the thymosin fraction V group.46 A related substance, thymostimulin, decreased some side effects of chemotherapy and increased survival time compared with chemotherapy alone.47 A third product, thymic extract TP1, was shown to improve immune function in people treated with chemotherapy compared with effects of chemotherapy alone.48 Thymic peptides need to be administered by injection. People interested in their combined use with chemotherapy should consult a doctor.

    The interaction is supported by preliminary, weak, fragmentary, and/or contradictory scientific evidence.
  • Docetaxel

    Peptides or short proteins derived from the thymus gland, an important immune organ, have been used in conjunction with chemotherapy drugs for people with cancer. One study using thymosin fraction V in combination with chemotherapy, compared with chemotherapy alone, found significantly longer survival times in the thymosin fraction V group.52 A related substance, thymostimulin, decreased some side effects of chemotherapy and increased survival time compared with chemotherapy alone.53 A third product, thymic extract TP1, was shown to improve immune function in people treated with chemotherapy compared with effects of chemotherapy alone.54 Thymic peptides need to be administered by injection. People interested in their combined use with chemotherapy should consult a doctor.

    The interaction is supported by preliminary, weak, fragmentary, and/or contradictory scientific evidence.
  • Fluorouracil

    Peptides or short proteins derived from the thymus gland, an important immune organ, have been used in conjunction with chemotherapy drugs for people with cancer. One study using thymosin fraction V in combination with chemotherapy, compared with chemotherapy alone, found significantly longer survival times in the thymosin fraction V group.67 A related substance, thymostimulin, decreased some side effects of chemotherapy and increased survival time compared with chemotherapy alone.68 A third product, thymic extract TP1, was shown to improve immune function in people treated with chemotherapy compared with effects of chemotherapy alone.69 Thymic peptides need to be administered by injection. People interested in their combined use with chemotherapy should consult a doctor.

    The interaction is supported by preliminary, weak, fragmentary, and/or contradictory scientific evidence.
  • Paclitaxel

    Peptides or short proteins derived from the thymus gland, an important immune organ, have been used in conjunction with chemotherapy drugs for people with cancer. One study using thymosin fraction V in combination with chemotherapy, compared with chemotherapy alone, found significantly longer survival times in the thymosin fraction V group.91 A related substance, thymostimulin, decreased some side effects of chemotherapy and increased survival time compared with chemotherapy alone.92 A third product, thymic extract TP1, was shown to improve immune function in people treated with chemotherapy compared with effects of chemotherapy alone.93 Thymic peptides need to be administered by injection. People interested in their combined use with chemotherapy should consult a doctor.

    The interaction is supported by preliminary, weak, fragmentary, and/or contradictory scientific evidence.

Support Medicine

  • Busulfan

    Peptides or short proteins derived from the thymus gland, an important immune organ, have been used in conjunction with chemotherapy drugs for people with cancer. One study using thymosin fraction V in combination with chemotherapy, compared with chemotherapy alone, found significantly longer survival times in the thymosin fraction V group.25 A related substance, thymostimulin, decreased some side effects of chemotherapy and increased survival time compared with chemotherapy alone.26 A third product, thymic extract TP1, was shown to improve immune function in people treated with chemotherapy compared with effects of chemotherapy alone.27 Thymic peptides need to be administered by injection. People interested in their combined use with chemotherapy should consult a doctor.

    The interaction is supported by preliminary, weak, fragmentary, and/or contradictory scientific evidence.
  • Capecitabine

    Peptides or short proteins derived from the thymus gland, an important immune organ, have been used in conjunction with chemotherapy drugs for people with cancer. One study using thymosin fraction V in combination with chemotherapy, compared with chemotherapy alone, found significantly longer survival times in the thymosin fraction V group.28 A related substance, thymostimulin, decreased some side effects of chemotherapy and increased survival time compared with chemotherapy alone.29 A third product, thymic extract TP1, was shown to improve immune function in people treated with chemotherapy compared with effects of chemotherapy alone.30 Thymic peptides need to be administered by injection. People interested in their combined use with chemotherapy should consult a doctor.

    The interaction is supported by preliminary, weak, fragmentary, and/or contradictory scientific evidence.
  • Carboplatin

    Peptides or short proteins derived from the thymus gland, an important immune organ, have been used in conjunction with chemotherapy drugs for people with cancer. One study using thymosin fraction V in combination with chemotherapy, compared with chemotherapy alone, found significantly longer survival times in the thymosin fraction V group.31 A related substance, thymostimulin, decreased some side effects of chemotherapy and increased survival time compared with chemotherapy alone.32 A third product, thymic extract TP1, was shown to improve immune function in people treated with chemotherapy compared with effects of chemotherapy alone.33 Thymic peptides need to be administered by injection. People interested in their combined use with chemotherapy should consult a doctor.

    The interaction is supported by preliminary, weak, fragmentary, and/or contradictory scientific evidence.
  • Carmustine

    Peptides or short proteins derived from the thymus gland, an important immune organ, have been used in conjunction with chemotherapy drugs for people with cancer. One study using thymosin fraction V in combination with chemotherapy, compared with chemotherapy alone, found significantly longer survival times in the thymosin fraction V group.34 A related substance, thymostimulin, decreased some side effects of chemotherapy and increased survival time compared with chemotherapy alone.35 A third product, thymic extract TP1, was shown to improve immune function in people treated with chemotherapy compared with effects of chemotherapy alone.36 Thymic peptides need to be administered by injection. People interested in their combined use with chemotherapy should consult a doctor.

    The interaction is supported by preliminary, weak, fragmentary, and/or contradictory scientific evidence.
  • Chlorambucil

    Peptides or short proteins derived from the thymus gland, an important immune organ, have been used in conjunction with chemotherapy drugs for people with cancer. One study using thymosin fraction V in combination with chemotherapy, compared with chemotherapy alone, found significantly longer survival times in the thymosin fraction V group.37 A related substance, thymostimulin, decreased some side effects of chemotherapy and increased survival time compared with chemotherapy alone.38 A third product, thymic extract TP1, was shown to improve immune function in people treated with chemotherapy compared with effects of chemotherapy alone.39 Thymic peptides need to be administered by injection. People interested in their combined use with chemotherapy should consult a doctor.

    The interaction is supported by preliminary, weak, fragmentary, and/or contradictory scientific evidence.
  • Cladribine

    Peptides or short proteins derived from the thymus gland, an important immune organ, have been used in conjunction with chemotherapy drugs for people with cancer. One study using thymosin fraction V in combination with chemotherapy, compared with chemotherapy alone, found significantly longer survival times in the thymosin fraction V group.43 A related substance, thymostimulin, decreased some side effects of chemotherapy and increased survival time compared with chemotherapy alone.44 A third product, thymic extract TP1, was shown to improve immune function in people treated with chemotherapy compared with effects of chemotherapy alone.45 Thymic peptides need to be administered by injection. People interested in their combined use with chemotherapy should consult a doctor.

    The interaction is supported by preliminary, weak, fragmentary, and/or contradictory scientific evidence.
  • Cytarabine

    Peptides or short proteins derived from the thymus gland, an important immune organ, have been used in conjunction with chemotherapy drugs for people with cancer. One study using thymosin fraction V in combination with chemotherapy, compared with chemotherapy alone, found significantly longer survival times in the thymosin fraction V group.49 A related substance, thymostimulin, decreased some side effects of chemotherapy and increased survival time compared with chemotherapy alone.50 A third product, thymic extract TP1, was shown to improve immune function in people treated with chemotherapy compared with effects of chemotherapy alone.51 Thymic peptides need to be administered by injection. People interested in their combined use with chemotherapy should consult a doctor.

    The interaction is supported by preliminary, weak, fragmentary, and/or contradictory scientific evidence.
  • Erlotinib

    Peptides or short proteins derived from the thymus gland, an important immune organ, have been used in conjunction with chemotherapy drugs for people with cancer. One study using thymosin fraction V in combination with chemotherapy, compared with chemotherapy alone, found significantly longer survival times in the thymosin fraction V group.55 A related substance, thymostimulin, decreased some side effects of chemotherapy and increased survival time compared with chemotherapy alone.56 A third product, thymic extract TP1, was shown to improve immune function in people treated with chemotherapy compared with effects of chemotherapy alone.57 Thymic peptides need to be administered by injection. People interested in their combined use with chemotherapy should consult a doctor.

    The interaction is supported by preliminary, weak, fragmentary, and/or contradictory scientific evidence.
  • Etoposide

    Peptides or short proteins derived from the thymus gland, an important immune organ, have been used in conjunction with chemotherapy drugs for people with cancer. One study using thymosin fraction V in combination with chemotherapy, compared with chemotherapy alone, found significantly longer survival times in the thymosin fraction V group.58 A related substance, thymostimulin, decreased some side effects of chemotherapy and increased survival time compared with chemotherapy alone.59 A third product, thymic extract TP1, was shown to improve immune function in people treated with chemotherapy compared with effects of chemotherapy alone.60 Thymic peptides need to be administered by injection. People interested in their combined use with chemotherapy should consult a doctor.

    The interaction is supported by preliminary, weak, fragmentary, and/or contradictory scientific evidence.
  • Floxuridine

    Peptides or short proteins derived from the thymus gland, an important immune organ, have been used in conjunction with chemotherapy drugs for people with cancer. One study using thymosin fraction V in combination with chemotherapy, compared with chemotherapy alone, found significantly longer survival times in the thymosin fraction V group.61 A related substance, thymostimulin, decreased some side effects of chemotherapy and increased survival time compared with chemotherapy alone.62 A third product, thymic extract TP1, was shown to improve immune function in people treated with chemotherapy compared with effects of chemotherapy alone.63 Thymic peptides need to be administered by injection. People interested in their combined use with chemotherapy should consult a doctor.

    The interaction is supported by preliminary, weak, fragmentary, and/or contradictory scientific evidence.
  • Fludarabine

    Peptides or short proteins derived from the thymus gland, an important immune organ, have been used in conjunction with chemotherapy drugs for people with cancer. One study using thymosin fraction V in combination with chemotherapy, compared with chemotherapy alone, found significantly longer survival times in the thymosin fraction V group.64 A related substance, thymostimulin, decreased some side effects of chemotherapy and increased survival time compared with chemotherapy alone.65 A third product, thymic extract TP1, was shown to improve immune function in people treated with chemotherapy compared with effects of chemotherapy alone.66 Thymic peptides need to be administered by injection. People interested in their combined use with chemotherapy should consult a doctor.

    The interaction is supported by preliminary, weak, fragmentary, and/or contradictory scientific evidence.
  • Hydroxyurea

    Peptides or short proteins derived from the thymus gland, an important immune organ, have been used in conjunction with chemotherapy drugs for people with cancer. One study using thymosin fraction V in combination with chemotherapy, compared with chemotherapy alone, found significantly longer survival times in the thymosin fraction V group.70 A related substance, thymostimulin, decreased some side effects of chemotherapy and increased survival time compared with chemotherapy alone.71 A third product, thymic extract TP1, was shown to improve immune function in people treated with chemotherapy compared with effects of chemotherapy alone.72 Thymic peptides need to be administered by injection. People interested in their combined use with chemotherapy should consult a doctor.

    The interaction is supported by preliminary, weak, fragmentary, and/or contradictory scientific evidence.
  • Ifosfamide

    Peptides or short proteins derived from the thymus gland, an important immune organ, have been used in conjunction with chemotherapy drugs for people with cancer. One study using thymosin fraction V in combination with chemotherapy, compared with chemotherapy alone, found significantly longer survival times in the thymosin fraction V group.73 A related substance, thymostimulin, decreased some side effects of chemotherapy and increased survival time compared with chemotherapy alone.74 A third product, thymic extract TP1, was shown to improve immune function in people treated with chemotherapy compared with effects of chemotherapy alone.75 Thymic peptides need to be administered by injection. People interested in their combined use with chemotherapy should consult a doctor.

    The interaction is supported by preliminary, weak, fragmentary, and/or contradictory scientific evidence.
  • Irinotecan

    Peptides or short proteins derived from the thymus gland, an important immune organ, have been used in conjunction with chemotherapy drugs for people with cancer. One study using thymosin fraction V in combination with chemotherapy, compared with chemotherapy alone, found significantly longer survival times in the thymosin fraction V group.76 A related substance, thymostimulin, decreased some side effects of chemotherapy and increased survival time compared with chemotherapy alone.77 A third product, thymic extract TP1, was shown to improve immune function in people treated with chemotherapy compared with effects of chemotherapy alone.78 Thymic peptides need to be administered by injection. People interested in their combined use with chemotherapy should consult a doctor.

    The interaction is supported by preliminary, weak, fragmentary, and/or contradictory scientific evidence.
  • Lomustine

    Peptides or short proteins derived from the thymus gland, an important immune organ, have been used in conjunction with chemotherapy drugs for people with cancer. One study using thymosin fraction V in combination with chemotherapy, compared with chemotherapy alone, found significantly longer survival times in the thymosin fraction V group.79 A related substance, thymostimulin, decreased some side effects of chemotherapy and increased survival time compared with chemotherapy alone.80 A third product, thymic extract TP1, was shown to improve immune function in people treated with chemotherapy compared with effects of chemotherapy alone.81 Thymic peptides need to be administered by injection. People interested in their combined use with chemotherapy should consult a doctor.

    The interaction is supported by preliminary, weak, fragmentary, and/or contradictory scientific evidence.
  • Mechlorethamine

    Peptides or short proteins derived from the thymus gland, an important immune organ, have been used in conjunction with chemotherapy drugs for people with cancer. One study using thymosin fraction V in combination with chemotherapy, compared with chemotherapy alone, found significantly longer survival times in the thymosin fraction V group.82 A related substance, thymostimulin, decreased some side effects of chemotherapy and increased survival time compared with chemotherapy alone.83 A third product, thymic extract TP1, was shown to improve immune function in people treated with chemotherapy compared with effects of chemotherapy alone.84 Thymic peptides need to be administered by injection. People interested in their combined use with chemotherapy should consult a doctor.

    The interaction is supported by preliminary, weak, fragmentary, and/or contradictory scientific evidence.
  • Melphalan

    Peptides or short proteins derived from the thymus gland, an important immune organ, have been used in conjunction with chemotherapy drugs for people with cancer. One study using thymosin fraction V in combination with chemotherapy, compared with chemotherapy alone, found significantly longer survival times in the thymosin fraction V group.85 A related substance, thymostimulin, decreased some side effects of chemotherapy and increased survival time compared with chemotherapy alone.86 A third product, thymic extract TP1, was shown to improve immune function in people treated with chemotherapy compared with effects of chemotherapy alone.87 Thymic peptides need to be administered by injection. People interested in their combined use with chemotherapy should consult a doctor.

    The interaction is supported by preliminary, weak, fragmentary, and/or contradictory scientific evidence.
  • Mercaptopurine

    Peptides or short proteins derived from the thymus gland, an important immune organ, have been used in conjunction with chemotherapy drugs for people with cancer. One study using thymosin fraction V in combination with chemotherapy, compared with chemotherapy alone, found significantly longer survival times in the thymosin fraction V group.88 A related substance, thymostimulin, decreased some side effects of chemotherapy and increased survival time compared with chemotherapy alone.89 A third product, thymic extract TP1, was shown to improve immune function in people treated with chemotherapy compared with effects of chemotherapy alone.90 Thymic peptides need to be administered by injection. People interested in their combined use with chemotherapy should consult a doctor.

    The interaction is supported by preliminary, weak, fragmentary, and/or contradictory scientific evidence.
  • Polifeprosan 20 with Carmustine

    Peptides or short proteins derived from the thymus gland, an important immune organ, have been used in conjunction with chemotherapy drugs for people with cancer. One study using thymosin fraction V in combination with chemotherapy, compared with chemotherapy alone, found significantly longer survival times in the thymosin fraction V group.94 A related substance, thymostimulin, decreased some side effects of chemotherapy and increased survival time compared with chemotherapy alone.95 A third product, thymic extract TP1, was shown to improve immune function in people treated with chemotherapy compared with effects of chemotherapy alone.96 Thymic peptides need to be administered by injection. People interested in their combined use with chemotherapy should consult a doctor.

    The interaction is supported by preliminary, weak, fragmentary, and/or contradictory scientific evidence.
  • Thioguanine

    Peptides or short proteins derived from the thymus gland, an important immune organ, have been used in conjunction with chemotherapy drugs for people with cancer. One study using thymosin fraction V in combination with chemotherapy, compared with chemotherapy alone, found significantly longer survival times in the thymosin fraction V group.97 A related substance, thymostimulin, decreased some side effects of chemotherapy and increased survival time compared with chemotherapy alone.98 A third product, thymic extract TP1, was shown to improve immune function in people treated with chemotherapy compared with effects of chemotherapy alone.99 Thymic peptides need to be administered by injection. People interested in their combined use with chemotherapy should consult a doctor.

    The interaction is supported by preliminary, weak, fragmentary, and/or contradictory scientific evidence.
  • Thiotepa

    Peptides or short proteins derived from the thymus gland, an important immune organ, have been used in conjunction with chemotherapy drugs for people with cancer. One study using thymosin fraction V in combination with chemotherapy, compared with chemotherapy alone, found significantly longer survival times in the thymosin fraction V group.100 A related substance, thymostimulin, decreased some side effects of chemotherapy and increased survival time compared with chemotherapy alone.101 A third product, thymic extract TP1, was shown to improve immune function in people treated with chemotherapy compared with effects of chemotherapy alone.102 Thymic peptides need to be administered by injection. People interested in their combined use with chemotherapy should consult a doctor.

    The interaction is supported by preliminary, weak, fragmentary, and/or contradictory scientific evidence.
  • Uracil Mustard

    Peptides or short proteins derived from the thymus gland, an important immune organ, have been used in conjunction with chemotherapy drugs for people with cancer. One study using thymosin fraction V in combination with chemotherapy, compared with chemotherapy alone, found significantly longer survival times in the thymosin fraction V group.103 A related substance, thymostimulin, decreased some side effects of chemotherapy and increased survival time compared with chemotherapy alone.104 A third product, thymic extract TP1, was shown to improve immune function in people treated with chemotherapy compared with effects of chemotherapy alone.105 Thymic peptides need to be administered by injection. People interested in their combined use with chemotherapy should consult a doctor.

    The interaction is supported by preliminary, weak, fragmentary, and/or contradictory scientific evidence.
  • Vinblastine

    Peptides or short proteins derived from the thymus gland, an important immune organ, have been used in conjunction with chemotherapy drugs for people with cancer. One study using thymosin fraction V in combination with chemotherapy, compared with chemotherapy alone, found significantly longer survival times in the thymosin fraction V group.106 A related substance, thymostimulin, decreased some side effects of chemotherapy and increased survival time compared with chemotherapy alone.107 A third product, thymic extract TP1, was shown to improve immune function in people treated with chemotherapy compared with effects of chemotherapy alone.108 Thymic peptides need to be administered by injection. People interested in their combined use with chemotherapy should consult a doctor.

  • Vincristine

    Peptides or short proteins derived from the thymus gland, an important immune organ, have been used in conjunction with chemotherapy drugs for people with cancer. One study using thymosin fraction V in combination with chemotherapy, compared with chemotherapy alone, found significantly longer survival times in the thymosin fraction V group.109 A related substance, thymostimulin, decreased some side effects of chemotherapy and increased survival time compared with chemotherapy alone.110 A third product, thymic extract TP1, was shown to improve immune function in people treated with chemotherapy compared with effects of chemotherapy alone.111 Thymic peptides need to be administered by injection. People interested in their combined use with chemotherapy should consult a doctor.

    The interaction is supported by preliminary, weak, fragmentary, and/or contradictory scientific evidence.

Reduces Effectiveness

  • none

Potential Negative Interaction

  • none

Explanation Required

  • none

The Drug-Nutrient Interactions table may not include every possible interaction. Taking medicines with meals, on an empty stomach, or with alcohol may influence their effects. For details, refer to the manufacturers’ package information as these are not covered in this table. If you take medications, always discuss the potential risks and benefits of adding a supplement with your doctor or pharmacist.

Side Effects

Side Effects

At the time of writing, there were no well-known side effects caused by this supplement.

References

1. Fiocchi A, Borella E, Riva E, et al. Double-blind clinical trial for the evaluation of the therapeutical effectiveness of a calf thymus derivative (Thymomodulin) in children with recurrent respiratory infections. Thymus 1986;8:331-9.

2. Cavagni G, Piscopo E, Rigoli E, et al. Food allergy in children: an attempt to improve the effects of the elimination diet with an immunomodulating agent (thymomodulin). A double-blind clinical trial. Immunopharmacol Immunotoxicol 1989;11:131-42.

3. Genova R, Guerra A. Thymomodulin in management of food allergy in children. Int J Tissue React 1986;8:239-42.

4. Cazzola P, Mazzanti P, Bossi G. In vivo modulating effect of a calf thymus acid lysate on human T lymphocyte subsets and CD4+/CD8+ ratio in the course of different diseases. Curr Ther Res 1987;42:1011-7.

5. Kouttab NM, Prada M, Cazzola P. Thymomodulin: Biological properties and clinical applications. Med Oncol Tumor Pharmacother 1989;6:5-9 [review].

6. Marzari R, Mazzanti P, Cazzola P, Pirodda E. Perennial allergic rhinitis: prevention of the acute episodes with Thymomodulin. Minerva Med 1987;78:1675-81.

7. Skotnicki AB. Therapeutic application of calf thymus extract (TFX). Med Oncol Tumor Pharmacother 1989;6:31-43 [review].

8. Galli M, Crocchiolo P, Negri C, et al. Attempt to treat acute type B hepatitis with an orally administered thymic extract (thymomodulin): Preliminary results. Drugs Exp Clin Res 1985;11:665-9.

9. Bortolotti F, Cadrobbi P, Crivellaro C, et al. Effect of an orally administered thymic derivative, thymomodulin, in chronic type B hepatitis in children. Curr Ther Res 1988;43:67-72.

10. Civeira MP, Castilla A, Morte S, et al. A pilot study of thymus extract in chronic non-A, non-B hepatitis. Aliment Pharmacol Ther 1989;3:395-401.

11. Fiocchi A, Borella E, Riva E, et al. Double-blind clinical trial for the evaluation of the therapeutical effectiveness of a calf thymus derivative (Thymomodulin) in children with recurrent respiratory infections. Thymus 1986;8:331-9.

12. Galli L, de Martino M, Azzari C, et al. Preventive effect of thymomodulin in recurrent respiratory infections in children. Pediatr Med Chir 1990;12:229-32.

13. Vettori G, Lazzaro A, Mazzanti P, Cazzola P. Prevention of recurrent respiratory infections in adults. Minerva Med 1987;78:1281-9.

14. Longo F, Lepore L, Agosti E, Panizon F. Evaluation of the effectiveness of thymomodulin in children with recurrent respiratory infections. Pediatr Med Chir 1988;10:603-7.

15. Maiorano V, Chianese R, Fumarulo R, et al. Thymomodulin increases the depressed production of superoxide anion by alveolar macrophages in patients with chronic bronchitis. Int J Tissue React 1989;11:21-5.

16. Garagiola U, Buzzetti M, Cardella E. Immunological patterns during regular intensive training in athletes: quantification and evaluation of a preventive pharmacological approach. J Int Med Res 1995;23:85-95.

17. Wysocki J, Wierusz-Wysocka B, Wykretowicz A, Wysocki H. The influence of thymus extracts on the chemotaxis of polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMN) from patients with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDD). Thymus 1992;20:63-7.

18. Calsini P, Mocchegiani E, Fabris N. The pharmacodynamics of thymomodulin in elderly humans. Drugs Exp Clin Res 1985;11:671-4.

19. Braga PC, Dal Sasso M, Maci S, et al. Restoration of polymorphonuclear leukocyte function in elderly subjects by thymomodulin. J Chemother 1994;6:354-9.

20. Cazzola P, Mazzanti P, Bossi G. In vivo modulating effect of a calf thymus acid lysate on human T lymphocyte subsets and CD4+/CD8+ ratio in the course of different diseases. Curr Ther Res 1987;42:1011-7.

21. Kouttab NM, Prada M, Cazzola P. Thymomodulin: Biological properties and clinical applications. Med Oncol Tumor Pharmacother 1989;6:5-9 [review].

22. Genova R, Guerra A. A thymus extract (thymomodulin) in the prevention of childhood asthma. Pediatr Med Chir 1983;5:395-402.

23. Bagnato A, Brovedani P, Comina P, et al. Long-term treatment with thymomodulin reduces airway hyperresponsiveness to methacholine. Ann Allergy 1989;62:425-8.

24. Valesini G, Barnaba V, Benvenuto R, et al. A calf thymus lysate improves clinical symptoms and T-cell defects in the early stages of HIV infection: Second report. Eur J Cancer Clin Oncol 1987;23:1915-9.

25. Cohen MH, Chretien PB, Ihde DC, et al. Thymosin fraction V and intensive combination chemotherapy. Prolonging the survival of patients with small-cell lung cancer. JAMA 1979;241:1813-5.

26. Macchiarini P, Danesi R, Del Tacca M, Angeletti CA. Effects of thymostimulin on chemotherapy-induced toxicity and long-term survival in small cell lung cancer patients. Anticancer Res 1989;9:193-6.

27. Shoham J, Theodor E, Brenner HJ, et al. Enhancement of the immune system of chemotherapy-treated cancer patients by simultaneous treatment with thymic extract, TP-1. Cancer Immunol Immunother 1980;9:173-80.

28. Cohen MH, Chretien PB, Ihde DC, et al. Thymosin fraction V and intensive combination chemotherapy. Prolonging the survival of patients with small-cell lung cancer. JAMA 1979;241:1813-5.

29. Macchiarini P, Danesi R, Del Tacca M, Angeletti CA. Effects of thymostimulin on chemotherapy-induced toxicity and long-term survival in small cell lung cancer patients. Anticancer Res 1989;9:193-6.

30. Shoham J, Theodor E, Brenner HJ, et al. Enhancement of the immune system of chemotherapy-treated cancer patients by simultaneous treatment with thymic extract, TP-1. Cancer Immunol Immunother 1980;9:173-80.

31. Cohen MH, Chretien PB, Ihde DC, et al. Thymosin fraction V and intensive combination chemotherapy. Prolonging the survival of patients with small-cell lung cancer. JAMA 1979;241:1813-5.

32. Macchiarini P, Danesi R, Del Tacca M, Angeletti CA. Effects of thymostimulin on chemotherapy-induced toxicity and long-term survival in small cell lung cancer patients. Anticancer Res 1989;9:193-6.

33. Shoham J, Theodor E, Brenner HJ, et al. Enhancement of the immune system of chemotherapy-treated cancer patients by simultaneous treatment with thymic extract, TP-1. Cancer Immunol Immunother 1980;9:173-80.

34. Cohen MH, Chretien PB, Ihde DC, et al. Thymosin fraction V and intensive combination chemotherapy. Prolonging the survival of patients with small-cell lung cancer. JAMA 1979;241:1813-5.

35. Macchiarini P, Danesi R, Del Tacca M, Angeletti CA. Effects of thymostimulin on chemotherapy-induced toxicity and long-term survival in small cell lung cancer patients. Anticancer Res 1989;9:193-6.

36. Shoham J, Theodor E, Brenner HJ, et al. Enhancement of the immune system of chemotherapy-treated cancer patients by simultaneous treatment with thymic extract, TP-1. Cancer Immunol Immunother 1980;9:173-80.

37. Cohen MH, Chretien PB, Ihde DC, et al. Thymosin fraction V and intensive combination chemotherapy. Prolonging the survival of patients with small-cell lung cancer. JAMA 1979;241:1813-5.

38. Macchiarini P, Danesi R, Del Tacca M, Angeletti CA. Effects of thymostimulin on chemotherapy-induced toxicity and long-term survival in small cell lung cancer patients. Anticancer Res 1989;9:193-6.

39. Shoham J, Theodor E, Brenner HJ, et al. Enhancement of the immune system of chemotherapy-treated cancer patients by simultaneous treatment with thymic extract, TP-1. Cancer Immunol Immunother 1980;9:173-80.

40. Cohen MH, Chretien PB, Ihde DC, et al. Thymosin fraction V and intensive combination chemotherapy. Prolonging the survival of patients with small-cell lung cancer. JAMA 1979;241:1813-5.

41. Macchiarini P, Danesi R, Del Tacca M, Angeletti CA. Effects of thymostimulin on chemotherapy-induced toxicity and long-term survival in small cell lung cancer patients. Anticancer Res 1989;9:193-6.

42. Shoham J, Theodor E, Brenner HJ, et al. Enhancement of the immune system of chemotherapy-treated cancer patients by simultaneous treatment with thymic extract, TP-1. Cancer Immunol Immunother 1980;9:173-80.

43. Cohen MH, Chretien PB, Ihde DC, et al. Thymosin fraction V and intensive combination chemotherapy. Prolonging the survival of patients with small-cell lung cancer. JAMA 1979;241:1813-5.

44. Macchiarini P, Danesi R, Del Tacca M, Angeletti CA. Effects of thymostimulin on chemotherapy-induced toxicity and long-term survival in small cell lung cancer patients. Anticancer Res 1989;9:193-6.

45. Shoham J, Theodor E, Brenner HJ, et al. Enhancement of the immune system of chemotherapy-treated cancer patients by simultaneous treatment with thymic extract, TP-1. Cancer Immunol Immunother 1980;9:173-80.

46. Cohen MH, Chretien PB, Ihde DC, et al. Thymosin fraction V and intensive combination chemotherapy. Prolonging the survival of patients with small-cell lung cancer. JAMA 1979;241:1813-5.

47. Macchiarini P, Danesi R, Del Tacca M, Angeletti CA. Effects of thymostimulin on chemotherapy-induced toxicity and long-term survival in small cell lung cancer patients. Anticancer Res 1989;9:193-6.

48. Shoham J, Theodor E, Brenner HJ, et al. Enhancement of the immune system of chemotherapy-treated cancer patients by simultaneous treatment with thymic extract, TP-1. Cancer Immunol Immunother 1980;9:173-80.

49. Cohen MH, Chretien PB, Ihde DC, et al. Thymosin fraction V and intensive combination chemotherapy. Prolonging the survival of patients with small-cell lung cancer. JAMA 1979;241:1813-5.

50. Macchiarini P, Danesi R, Del Tacca M, Angeletti CA. Effects of thymostimulin on chemotherapy-induced toxicity and long-term survival in small cell lung cancer patients. Anticancer Res 1989;9:193-6.

51. Shoham J, Theodor E, Brenner HJ, et al. Enhancement of the immune system of chemotherapy-treated cancer patients by simultaneous treatment with thymic extract, TP-1. Cancer Immunol Immunother 1980;9:173-80.

52. Cohen MH, Chretien PB, Ihde DC, et al. Thymosin fraction V and intensive combination chemotherapy. Prolonging the survival of patients with small-cell lung cancer. JAMA 1979;241:1813-5.

53. Macchiarini P, Danesi R, Del Tacca M, Angeletti CA. Effects of thymostimulin on chemotherapy-induced toxicity and long-term survival in small cell lung cancer patients. Anticancer Res 1989;9:193-6.

54. Shoham J, Theodor E, Brenner HJ, et al. Enhancement of the immune system of chemotherapy-treated cancer patients by simultaneous treatment with thymic extract, TP-1. Cancer Immunol Immunother 1980;9:173-80.

55. Cohen MH, Chretien PB, Ihde DC, et al. Thymosin fraction V and intensive combination chemotherapy. Prolonging the survival of patients with small-cell lung cancer. JAMA 1979;241:1813-5.

56. Macchiarini P, Danesi R, Del Tacca M, Angeletti CA. Effects of thymostimulin on chemotherapy-induced toxicity and long-term survival in small cell lung cancer patients. Anticancer Res 1989;9:193-6.

57. Shoham J, Theodor E, Brenner HJ, et al. Enhancement of the immune system of chemotherapy-treated cancer patients by simultaneous treatment with thymic extract, TP-1. Cancer Immunol Immunother 1980;9:173-80.

58. Cohen MH, Chretien PB, Ihde DC, et al. Thymosin fraction V and intensive combination chemotherapy. Prolonging the survival of patients with small-cell lung cancer. JAMA 1979;241:1813-5.

59. Macchiarini P, Danesi R, Del Tacca M, Angeletti CA. Effects of thymostimulin on chemotherapy-induced toxicity and long-term survival in small cell lung cancer patients. Anticancer Res 1989;9:193-6.

60. Shoham J, Theodor E, Brenner HJ, et al. Enhancement of the immune system of chemotherapy-treated cancer patients by simultaneous treatment with thymic extract, TP-1. Cancer Immunol Immunother 1980;9:173-80.

61. Cohen MH, Chretien PB, Ihde DC, et al. Thymosin fraction V and intensive combination chemotherapy. Prolonging the survival of patients with small-cell lung cancer. JAMA 1979;241:1813-5.

62. Macchiarini P, Danesi R, Del Tacca M, Angeletti CA. Effects of thymostimulin on chemotherapy-induced toxicity and long-term survival in small cell lung cancer patients. Anticancer Res 1989;9:193-6.

63. Shoham J, Theodor E, Brenner HJ, et al. Enhancement of the immune system of chemotherapy-treated cancer patients by simultaneous treatment with thymic extract, TP-1. Cancer Immunol Immunother 1980;9:173-80.

64. Cohen MH, Chretien PB, Ihde DC, et al. Thymosin fraction V and intensive combination chemotherapy. Prolonging the survival of patients with small-cell lung cancer. JAMA 1979;241:1813-5.

65. Macchiarini P, Danesi R, Del Tacca M, Angeletti CA. Effects of thymostimulin on chemotherapy-induced toxicity and long-term survival in small cell lung cancer patients. Anticancer Res 1989;9:193-6.

66. Shoham J, Theodor E, Brenner HJ, et al. Enhancement of the immune system of chemotherapy-treated cancer patients by simultaneous treatment with thymic extract, TP-1. Cancer Immunol Immunother 1980;9:173-80.

67. Cohen MH, Chretien PB, Ihde DC, et al. Thymosin fraction V and intensive combination chemotherapy. Prolonging the survival of patients with small-cell lung cancer. JAMA 1979;241:1813-5.

68. Macchiarini P, Danesi R, Del Tacca M, Angeletti CA. Effects of thymostimulin on chemotherapy-induced toxicity and long-term survival in small cell lung cancer patients. Anticancer Res 1989;9:193-6.

69. Shoham J, Theodor E, Brenner HJ, et al. Enhancement of the immune system of chemotherapy-treated cancer patients by simultaneous treatment with thymic extract, TP-1. Cancer Immunol Immunother 1980;9:173-80.

70. Cohen MH, Chretien PB, Ihde DC, et al. Thymosin fraction V and intensive combination chemotherapy. Prolonging the survival of patients with small-cell lung cancer. JAMA 1979;241:1813-5.

71. Macchiarini P, Danesi R, Del Tacca M, Angeletti CA. Effects of thymostimulin on chemotherapy-induced toxicity and long-term survival in small cell lung cancer patients. Anticancer Res 1989;9:193-6.

72. Shoham J, Theodor E, Brenner HJ, et al. Enhancement of the immune system of chemotherapy-treated cancer patients by simultaneous treatment with thymic extract, TP-1. Cancer Immunol Immunother 1980;9:173-80.

73. Cohen MH, Chretien PB, Ihde DC, et al. Thymosin fraction V and intensive combination chemotherapy. Prolonging the survival of patients with small-cell lung cancer. JAMA 1979;241:1813-5.

74. Macchiarini P, Danesi R, Del Tacca M, Angeletti CA. Effects of thymostimulin on chemotherapy-induced toxicity and long-term survival in small cell lung cancer patients. Anticancer Res 1989;9:193-6.

75. Shoham J, Theodor E, Brenner HJ, et al. Enhancement of the immune system of chemotherapy-treated cancer patients by simultaneous treatment with thymic extract, TP-1. Cancer Immunol Immunother 1980;9:173-80.

76. Cohen MH, Chretien PB, Ihde DC, et al. Thymosin fraction V and intensive combination chemotherapy. Prolonging the survival of patients with small-cell lung cancer. JAMA 1979;241:1813-5.

77. Macchiarini P, Danesi R, Del Tacca M, Angeletti CA. Effects of thymostimulin on chemotherapy-induced toxicity and long-term survival in small cell lung cancer patients. Anticancer Res 1989;9:193-6.

78. Shoham J, Theodor E, Brenner HJ, et al. Enhancement of the immune system of chemotherapy-treated cancer patients by simultaneous treatment with thymic extract, TP-1. Cancer Immunol Immunother 1980;9:173-80.

79. Cohen MH, Chretien PB, Ihde DC, et al. Thymosin fraction V and intensive combination chemotherapy. Prolonging the survival of patients with small-cell lung cancer. JAMA 1979;241:1813-5.

80. Macchiarini P, Danesi R, Del Tacca M, Angeletti CA. Effects of thymostimulin on chemotherapy-induced toxicity and long-term survival in small cell lung cancer patients. Anticancer Res 1989;9:193-6.

81. Shoham J, Theodor E, Brenner HJ, et al. Enhancement of the immune system of chemotherapy-treated cancer patients by simultaneous treatment with thymic extract, TP-1. Cancer Immunol Immunother 1980;9:173-80.

82. Cohen MH, Chretien PB, Ihde DC, et al. Thymosin fraction V and intensive combination chemotherapy. Prolonging the survival of patients with small-cell lung cancer. JAMA 1979;241:1813-5.

83. Macchiarini P, Danesi R, Del Tacca M, Angeletti CA. Effects of thymostimulin on chemotherapy-induced toxicity and long-term survival in small cell lung cancer patients. Anticancer Res 1989;9:193-6.

84. Shoham J, Theodor E, Brenner HJ, et al. Enhancement of the immune system of chemotherapy-treated cancer patients by simultaneous treatment with thymic extract, TP-1. Cancer Immunol Immunother 1980;9:173-80.

85. Cohen MH, Chretien PB, Ihde DC, et al. Thymosin fraction V and intensive combination chemotherapy. Prolonging the survival of patients with small-cell lung cancer. JAMA 1979;241:1813-5.

86. Macchiarini P, Danesi R, Del Tacca M, Angeletti CA. Effects of thymostimulin on chemotherapy-induced toxicity and long-term survival in small cell lung cancer patients. Anticancer Res 1989;9:193-6.

87. Shoham J, Theodor E, Brenner HJ, et al. Enhancement of the immune system of chemotherapy-treated cancer patients by simultaneous treatment with thymic extract, TP-1. Cancer Immunol Immunother 1980;9:173-80.

88. Cohen MH, Chretien PB, Ihde DC, et al. Thymosin fraction V and intensive combination chemotherapy. Prolonging the survival of patients with small-cell lung cancer. JAMA 1979;241:1813-5.

89. Macchiarini P, Danesi R, Del Tacca M, Angeletti CA. Effects of thymostimulin on chemotherapy-induced toxicity and long-term survival in small cell lung cancer patients. Anticancer Res 1989;9:193-6.

90. Shoham J, Theodor E, Brenner HJ, et al. Enhancement of the immune system of chemotherapy-treated cancer patients by simultaneous treatment with thymic extract, TP-1. Cancer Immunol Immunother 1980;9:173-80.

91. Cohen MH, Chretien PB, Ihde DC, et al. Thymosin fraction V and intensive combination chemotherapy. Prolonging the survival of patients with small-cell lung cancer. JAMA 1979;241:1813-5.

92. Macchiarini P, Danesi R, Del Tacca M, Angeletti CA. Effects of thymostimulin on chemotherapy-induced toxicity and long-term survival in small cell lung cancer patients. Anticancer Res 1989;9:193-6.

93. Shoham J, Theodor E, Brenner HJ, et al. Enhancement of the immune system of chemotherapy-treated cancer patients by simultaneous treatment with thymic extract, TP-1. Cancer Immunol Immunother 1980;9:173-80.

94. Cohen MH, Chretien PB, Ihde DC, et al. Thymosin fraction V and intensive combination chemotherapy. Prolonging the survival of patients with small-cell lung cancer. JAMA 1979;241:1813-5.

95. Macchiarini P, Danesi R, Del Tacca M, Angeletti CA. Effects of thymostimulin on chemotherapy-induced toxicity and long-term survival in small cell lung cancer patients. Anticancer Res 1989;9:193-6.

96. Shoham J, Theodor E, Brenner HJ, et al. Enhancement of the immune system of chemotherapy-treated cancer patients by simultaneous treatment with thymic extract, TP-1. Cancer Immunol Immunother 1980;9:173-80.

97. Cohen MH, Chretien PB, Ihde DC, et al. Thymosin fraction V and intensive combination chemotherapy. Prolonging the survival of patients with small-cell lung cancer. JAMA 1979;241:1813-5.

98. Macchiarini P, Danesi R, Del Tacca M, Angeletti CA. Effects of thymostimulin on chemotherapy-induced toxicity and long-term survival in small cell lung cancer patients. Anticancer Res 1989;9:193-6.

99. Shoham J, Theodor E, Brenner HJ, et al. Enhancement of the immune system of chemotherapy-treated cancer patients by simultaneous treatment with thymic extract, TP-1. Cancer Immunol Immunother 1980;9:173-80.

100. Cohen MH, Chretien PB, Ihde DC, et al. Thymosin fraction V and intensive combination chemotherapy. Prolonging the survival of patients with small-cell lung cancer. JAMA 1979;241:1813-5.

101. Macchiarini P, Danesi R, Del Tacca M, Angeletti CA. Effects of thymostimulin on chemotherapy-induced toxicity and long-term survival in small cell lung cancer patients. Anticancer Res 1989;9:193-6.

102. Shoham J, Theodor E, Brenner HJ, et al. Enhancement of the immune system of chemotherapy-treated cancer patients by simultaneous treatment with thymic extract, TP-1. Cancer Immunol Immunother 1980;9:173-80.

103. Cohen MH, Chretien PB, Ihde DC, et al. Thymosin fraction V and intensive combination chemotherapy. Prolonging the survival of patients with small-cell lung cancer. JAMA 1979;241:1813-5.

104. Macchiarini P, Danesi R, Del Tacca M, Angeletti CA. Effects of thymostimulin on chemotherapy-induced toxicity and long-term survival in small cell lung cancer patients. Anticancer Res 1989;9:193-6.

105. Shoham J, Theodor E, Brenner HJ, et al. Enhancement of the immune system of chemotherapy-treated cancer patients by simultaneous treatment with thymic extract, TP-1. Cancer Immunol Immunother 1980;9:173-80.

106. Cohen MH, Chretien PB, Ihde DC, et al. Thymosin fraction V and intensive combination chemotherapy. Prolonging the survival of patients with small-cell lung cancer. JAMA 1979;241:1813-5.

107. Macchiarini P, Danesi R, Del Tacca M, Angeletti CA. Effects of thymostimulin on chemotherapy-induced toxicity and long-term survival in small cell lung cancer patients. Anticancer Res 1989;9:193-6.

108. Shoham J, Theodor E, Brenner HJ, et al. Enhancement of the immune system of chemotherapy-treated cancer patients by simultaneous treatment with thymic extract, TP-1. Cancer Immunol Immunother 1980;9:173-80.

109. Cohen MH, Chretien PB, Ihde DC, et al. Thymosin fraction V and intensive combination chemotherapy. Prolonging the survival of patients with small-cell lung cancer. JAMA 1979;241:1813-5.

110. Macchiarini P, Danesi R, Del Tacca M, Angeletti CA. Effects of thymostimulin on chemotherapy-induced toxicity and long-term survival in small cell lung cancer patients. Anticancer Res 1989;9:193-6.

111. Shoham J, Theodor E, Brenner HJ, et al. Enhancement of the immune system of chemotherapy-treated cancer patients by simultaneous treatment with thymic extract, TP-1. Cancer Immunol Immunother 1980;9:173-80.

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