Pyruvate

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Pyruvate

Uses

Pyruvate (the buffered form of pyruvic acid) is a product created in the body during the metabolism of carbohydrates and protein.

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Our proprietary “Star-Rating” system was developed to help you easily understand the amount of scientific support behind each supplement in relation to a specific health condition. While there is no way to predict whether a vitamin, mineral, or herb will successfully treat or prevent associated health conditions, our unique ratings tell you how well these supplements are understood by the medical community, and whether studies have found them to be effective for other people.

For over a decade, our team has combed through thousands of research articles published in reputable journals. To help you make educated decisions, and to better understand controversial or confusing supplements, our medical experts have digested the science into these three easy-to-follow ratings. We hope this provides you with a helpful resource to make informed decisions towards your health and well-being.

3 Stars Reliable and relatively consistent scientific data showing a substantial health benefit.

2 Stars Contradictory, insufficient, or preliminary studies suggesting a health benefit or minimal health benefit.

1 Star For an herb, supported by traditional use but minimal or no scientific evidence. For a supplement, little scientific support.

This supplement has been used in connection with the following health conditions:

Used for Why
3 Stars
Obesity
6 to 10 grams daily combined with an exercise program
Combining exercise with pyruvate may help speed up your metabolism.
Pyruvate, a compound that occurs naturally in the body, might aid weight-loss efforts.1 A controlled trial found that pyruvate supplements (22 to 44 grams per day) enhanced weight loss and resulted in a greater reduction of body fat in overweight adults consuming a low-fat diet.2 Three controlled trials combining 6 to 10 grams per day of pyruvate with an exercise program reported greater effects on weight loss and body fat than that seen with a placebo plus the exercise program.3 , 4 , 5 Animal studies suggest that pyruvate supplementation leads to weight loss by increasing the resting metabolic rate.6
2 Stars
Athletic Performance
100 grams of a combination of dihydroxyacetone and pyruvate
One group of researchers has reported that a combination of dihydroxyacetone and pyruvate enhanced the endurance of certain muscles.

One group of researchers in two small, controlled trials has reported that 100 grams of a combination of dihydroxyacetone and pyruvate enhanced the endurance of certain muscles in untrained men.7 , 8 Three controlled studies of untrained individuals using a combination of 6 to 10 grams per day of pyruvate and an exercise program reported greater effects on weight loss and body fat compared with those taking a placebo with the exercise program.9 , 10 , 11 However, in a study of healthy untrained women undergoing an exercise program, supplementing with 5 grams of pyruvate twice a day had no effect on exercise performance.12 Studies of pyruvate supplementation on exercise performance in trained athletes have also failed to demonstrate any beneficial effect. Seven grams per day did not improve aerobic exercise performance in cyclists,13 and an average of 15 grams per day did not improve anaerobic performance or body composition in football players.14 More recently, evidence has appeared casting doubt on the ability of high levels (an average exceeding 15 grams per day depending upon body weight) of pyruvate to improve exercise capacity in a weight-lifting study.15

2 Stars
Athletic Performance and Improving Body Composition with Strength Training in Untrained People
Refer to label instructions
Three controlled studies of people using a combination of pyruvate and an exercise program reported positive effects on weight loss and body fat.

One group of researchers in two small, controlled trials has reported that 100 grams of a combination of dihydroxyacetone and pyruvate enhanced the endurance of certain muscles in untrained men.16 , 17 Three controlled studies of untrained individuals using a combination of 6 to 10 grams per day of pyruvate and an exercise program reported greater effects on weight loss and body fat compared with those taking a placebo with the exercise program.18 , 19 , 20 However, in a study of healthy untrained women undergoing an exercise program, supplementing with 5 grams of pyruvate twice a day had no effect on exercise performance.21 Studies of pyruvate supplementation on exercise performance in trained athletes have also failed to demonstrate any beneficial effect. Seven grams per day did not improve aerobic exercise performance in cyclists,22 and an average of 15 grams per day did not improve anaerobic performance or body composition in football players.23 More recently, evidence has appeared casting doubt on the ability of high levels (an average exceeding 15 grams per day depending upon body weight) of pyruvate to improve exercise capacity in a weight-lifting study.24

How It Works

How to Use It

Most human research with pyruvate and weight loss has used at least 30 grams per day. However, such large amounts may not be necessary. In a six-week double-blind trial, as little as 6 grams per day of pyruvate in combination with exercise, led to greater weight loss and loss of body fat, compared with a placebo plus exercise.25

Where to Find It

Pyruvate is formed in the body as a byproduct of the normal metabolism of carbohydrates and protein and is present in several foods, including red apples, cheese, dark beer, and red wine. Dietary supplements of pyruvate are also available.

Possible Deficiencies

Because it is not an essential nutrient, pyruvate is not associated with a deficiency state.

Interactions

Interactions with Supplements, Foods, & Other Compounds

At the time of writing, there were no well-known supplement or food interactions with this supplement.

Interactions with Medicines

As of the last update, we found no reported interactions between this supplement and medicines. It is possible that unknown interactions exist. If you take medication, always discuss the potential risks and benefits of adding a new supplement with your doctor or pharmacist.
The Drug-Nutrient Interactions table may not include every possible interaction. Taking medicines with meals, on an empty stomach, or with alcohol may influence their effects. For details, refer to the manufacturers’ package information as these are not covered in this table. If you take medications, always discuss the potential risks and benefits of adding a supplement with your doctor or pharmacist.

Side Effects

Side Effects

High intakes of pyruvate can trigger gastrointestinal upset, such as gas, bloating, and diarrhea. One preliminary study in exercising women found 10 grams per day of pyruvate reduced blood levels of HDL (the “good” cholesterol) after one month.26

References

1. Stanko RT, Tietze DL, Arch JE. Body composition, energy utilization, and nitrogen metabolism with a 4.25-MJ/d low-energy diet supplemented with pyruvate. Am J Clin Nutr 1992;56:630-5.

2. Stanko RT, Reynolds HR, Hoyson R, et al. Pyruvate supplementation of a low-cholesterol, low-fat diet: Effects on plasma lipid concentration and body composition in hyperlipidemic patients. Am J Clin Nutr 1994;59:423-7.

3. Kalman D, Colker CM, Wilets I, et al. The effects of pyruvate supplementation on body composition in overweight individuals. Nutrition 1999;15:337-40.

4. Kalman D, Colker CM, Stark S, et al. Effect of pyruvate supplementation on body composition and mood. Curr Ther Res 1998;59:793-802.

5. Kreider R, Koh P, Ferreira M, et al. Effects of pyruvate supplementation during training on body composition & metabolic responses to exercise. Med Sci Sports Exerc 1998;30:S62 [abstract].

6. Ivy JL, Cortez MY, Chandler RM, et al. Effects of pyruvate on the metabolism and insulin resistance of obese Zucker rats. Am J Clin Nutr 1994;59:331-7.

7. Stanko RT, Robertson RJ, Galbreath RW, et al. Enhanced leg exercise endurance with a high-carbohydrate diet and dihyroxyacetone and pyruvate. J Appl Phys 1990;69:1651-6.

8. Stanko RT, Robertson RJ, Spina RJ, et al. Enhancement of arm exercise endurance capacity with dihydroxyacetone and pyruvate. J Appl Phys 1990;68:119-24.

9. Kalman D, Colker CM, Wilets I, et al. The effects of pyruvate supplementation on body composition in overweight individuals. Nutrition 1999;15:337-40.

10. Kreider R, Koh P, Ferreira M, et al. Effects of pyruvate supplementation during training on body composition & metabolic responses to exercise. Med Sci Sports Exerc 1998;30:S62 [abstract].

11. Kalman D, Colker CM, Stark S, et al. Effect of pyruvate supplementation on body composition and mood. Curr Ther Res 1998;59:793-802.

12. Koh-Banerjee PK, Ferreira MP, Greenwood M, et al. Effects of calcium pyruvate supplementation during training on body composition, exercise capacity, and metabolic responses to exercise. Nutr 2005;21:312-9.

13. Morrison MA, Spriet LL, Dyck DJ. Pyruvate ingestion for 7 days does not improve aerobic performance in well-trained individuals. J Appl Physiol 2000;89:549-56.

14. Stone MH, Sanborn K, Smith LL, et al. Effects of in-season (5 weeks) creatine and pyruvate supplementation on anaerobic performance and body composition in American football players. Int J Sport Nutr 1999;9:146-65.

15. Stone MH, Sanborn K, Smith LL, et al. Effects of in-season (5 weeks) creatine and pyruvate supplementation on anaerobic performance and body composition in American football players. Int J Sport Nutr 1999;9:146-65.

16. Stanko RT, Robertson RJ, Galbreath RW, et al. Enhanced leg exercise endurance with a high-carbohydrate diet and dihyroxyacetone and pyruvate. J Appl Phys 1990;69:1651-6.

17. Stanko RT, Robertson RJ, Spina RJ, et al. Enhancement of arm exercise endurance capacity with dihydroxyacetone and pyruvate. J Appl Phys 1990;68:119-24.

18. Kalman D, Colker CM, Wilets I, et al. The effects of pyruvate supplementation on body composition in overweight individuals. Nutrition 1999;15:337-40.

19. Kreider R, Koh P, Ferreira M, et al. Effects of pyruvate supplementation during training on body composition & metabolic responses to exercise. Med Sci Sports Exerc 1998;30:S62 [abstract].

20. Kalman D, Colker CM, Stark S, et al. Effect of pyruvate supplementation on body composition and mood. Curr Ther Res 1998;59:793-802.

21. Koh-Banerjee PK, Ferreira MP, Greenwood M, et al. Effects of calcium pyruvate supplementation during training on body composition, exercise capacity, and metabolic responses to exercise. Nutr 2005;21:312-9.

22. Morrison MA, Spriet LL, Dyck DJ. Pyruvate ingestion for 7 days does not improve aerobic performance in well-trained individuals. J Appl Physiol 2000;89:549-56.

23. Stone MH, Sanborn K, Smith LL, et al. Effects of in-season (5 weeks) creatine and pyruvate supplementation on anaerobic performance and body composition in American football players. Int J Sport Nutr 1999;9:146-65.

24. Stone MH, Sanborn K, Smith LL, et al. Effects of in-season (5 weeks) creatine and pyruvate supplementation on anaerobic performance and body composition in American football players. Int J Sport Nutr 1999;9:146-65.

25. Kalman D, Colker CM, Wilets I, et al. The effects of pyruvate supplementation on body composition in overweight individuals. Nutrition 1999;15:337-40.

26. Koh P, Kreider R, Ferreira M, et al. Effects of pyruvate supplementation during training on hematologic and metabolic profiles. Med Sci Sports Exerc 1998;30:S155 [abstract].

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